How to Choose the Right Measures for Your Projects

A measure is a small part of a piece of music that helps musicians maintain a consistent rhythm. It’s also a tool for tracking data and providing insights to improve performance.

The best way to use measures depends on your business needs and the types of information you’re aiming to track. Choosing the right metrics or benchmarks is key.

Choosing the Right Metrics or Benchmarks

Coming up with the right metrics for a project can be hard. Often the number of potential metrics is endless, making it difficult to choose just a few key ones. This is especially true when choosing metrics that focus on outcomes. In this context, there are a growing number of catalogues for different outcome domains, negating the need to create them from scratch. Tools like Socialsuite even offer a library of templates for various types of measurement.

Metrics and benchmarks are important for providing information that drives action. However, they should be viewed through the lens of a holistic business strategy. Otherwise, narrowly defined results can have unintended consequences, for example if a new product is proving popular but it’s also cannibalizing existing sales (as in the case of razor blade manufacturers), this could be counterproductive. The best metric is one that is actionable, aligned with the company’s goals and enables continuous improvement. In order to achieve this, it’s vital that the right assumptions are made around data collection and calculations – these should be tested by peer review and sensitivity analysis.

Measuring Processes

Measurement theory is a broad field that includes the study of how to represent properties through numbers. This field has various systems of axioms, or basic rules and assumptions that govern the representation and comparison of quantities.

Process measures are a type of metric that focuses on the actions performed within an organization. They can be used to track performance over time, such as the number of times a test was conducted for a particular patient or group. Process metrics can also be used to identify gaps in care, such as the number of diabetics who did not receive blood pressure testing.

Process metrics can be combined with outcome measures to create a composite measurement that captures both inputs and outputs. Payers can use these measurements to understand if they are achieving desired outcomes, such as a reduction in polio cases. This can help them to determine which strategies are working and devise new ways to increase preventive services in a cost-efficient manner.

Measuring Outcomes

Outcomes are often more akin to the “big picture” impact of a project, such as client growth over time that can be directly linked to your projects (such as increasing website traffic or margins). While these are much broader in scope than the outputs measured by process measures, these outcomes still need to have quantifiable data attached.

This data helps to assess how well a project is performing, and whether its efforts are making progress towards an outcome goal or not. It’s important to choose an appropriate measure and target for each outcome.

As with process measures, it’s important to avoid perverse incentives or uncontrolled external factors when setting outcome targets. It’s also good to test the achievability of any stretch targets with service providers or social investors (if they are part of an outcomes-based contract such as an impact bond). The pricing outcomes guide provides useful advice on this. This is particularly important for any outcomes-based contracts that will be used to pay for services.

Measuring Performance

A good performance measurement system provides data that allows you to make informed decisions, identify opportunities for improvement and hold your leadership team accountable. It also enables you to communicate your success with funders and other stakeholders.

Measuring performance involves choosing metrics or indicators to measure progress towards desired goals, collecting and analyzing data, and reporting the results of these measures. This may involve using internal systems such as financial or customer databases, external sources such as market research or industry benchmarks, or a combination of these techniques.

The data you collect should be accurate and reliable, with a sufficient degree of granularity to allow you to detect small but important changes. You should also use comparative values, where applicable, to gain insight into the meaning of your calculated metrics. For example, a 5% increase in revenue might be impressive, but it could still represent poor performance compared to your competitors. You should also analyze the performance of these metrics over time to determine trends and patterns.

The Basics of Mass Measurement

Mass measurement is fundamental to a number of scientific disciplines. It’s also a complex subject since different atoms and elementary particles, theoretically with the same amount of matter, have different masses.

Weighing is one of the most common ways to measure mass. People use balances to weigh things all the time. But what does this tell us about mass?


It is common to confuse the terms mass and weight. While the former refers to an object’s inertial force due to gravity, the latter describes the amount of matter that an object contains. The more matter an object has, the more it will weigh.

The standard unit for mass is the kilogram. It is one of seven base units of the International System of Units (SI). The SI was defined in a coherent manner through the fashioning of metre and kilogram artefacts and an international body, the Conference générale des poids et mesures or CGPM, to oversee systems of weights and measures based on them.

While the metric system’s other bases (such as the metre) have lost their link with a physical prototype, the kilogram and the SI remain part of the physics world today. Like other metric units, kilograms are measured in multiples and fractions of the kilogram. A kilo is 1,000 grams, for example.


The kilogram (symbol kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units. It is often simply called a kilo colloquially. It is a common measure used in science, engineering and commerce worldwide.

The SI meter, second, ampere, kelvin, mole and candela are derived from the kilogram. Therefore, any uncertainty in the definition of the kilogram is carried into these derived units.

Scientists around the world argue that the current definition of the kilogram is imprecise and introduces uncertainties into measurements and physical constants that depend on it, such as the Planck constant h. These scientists are calling for a new definition of the kilogram, based on a fixed numerical value of the Planck constant.

Currently, the physical prototype of the kilogram is kept in a lab in Sevres, France in several nested evacuated glass domes. Each country that subscribes to the International Metric Convention receives one of these national prototypes. The primary standard of the kilogram in the United States is a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at NIST.

Active gravitational mass

Mass is a property of objects that defines, roughly speaking, how much matter they contain. It is one of the central concepts in classical mechanics, and is also the basis for the gravitational force between two objects.

In classical mechanics, inertial mass and gravitational mass (which we typically call weight) are equal. This equivalence is mandated by Newton’s third law.

It’s also a key tenet of general relativity, and is sometimes referred to as the strong equivalence principle. Inertial mass and passive gravitational mass are not the same, and there is no empirical evidence that the equivalence of these two properties exists in practice.

Active gravitational mass is the amount of spacetime curvature induced by an object’s motion, as measured through the transverse and longitudinal velocities it induces in test particles at rest near its path. It is a critical measurement for the study of general relativity and its effects, such as the deflection of light or the orbits of planets around stars.

Passive gravitational mass

A physical property of an object, passive gravitational mass measures how much the object resists acceleration. This is the opposite of weight, which measures the force exerted on an object by gravity.

In classical physics, it is not clear why passive gravitational mass should be identical to inertial mass. However, Einstein’s general theory of relativity requires that both be the same. This is known as the strong equivalence principle.

Various experiments have been performed to test the equivalence principle. In one experiment, a Teflon cylinder is pulled up and down while a laser beam is passed through it. This produces a time-varying gravitational field that can be measured.

A recent classification of the “kilogram” as a unit of inertial mass, based on atom count methods with matter wave interferometers, is critically analyzed. The underlying process of reasoning that leads to this conclusion unravels some deeper issues. These issues concern the working principles of these instruments as well as the notion of universal free fall.