What Is Mass?

mass measurement

Weighing something on a balance is a very common way to measure mass. But what exactly is mass? The word “mass” is often used interchangeably with the term weight. However, they mean different things.

Mass is a measurement of the amount of matter in an object. Its gravitational “weight” is a direct result of the object’s force of acceleration on Earth.

Measuring mass

The most common method for measuring mass is by using a balance. This works by comparing the unknown object’s weight with the known value of its mass. The result of this measurement can be converted to the force of gravity by dividing it by the acceleration of gravity. This method is accurate even in space or places with no gravity.

A good way to learn about the concepts of matter and energy is to teach your children at an early age. They will be able to grasp the concept much easier when it’s introduced in a relaxed atmosphere, and it will help them learn more complex topics in subjects like physics.

Many people confuse the terms “weight” and “mass.” While weight depends on the force of gravity, mass is a measure of how much matter an object contains. This is why an elephant has more mass than a ping-pong ball, even though they have the same size.

Measurement of weight

Weight is a measure of an object’s heaviness, and it is expressed in standard customary units such as the pound (lb) and the ton. The heaviness of an object depends on its gravity, and it is therefore a dependent variable.

The term “weight” is also used to refer to the gravitational force that an object exerts on another, but it is important to distinguish this from mass. An object’s weight can vary depending on its location, but its mass is constant.

A gram of feathers and a pound of lead have the same mass, but one is heavier than the other because it has greater volume. This is a good way to explain the difference between weight and mass to children. It is also important for engineers who work in fields that require weighing to know the distinction between these two measurements. They use a formula that converts an object’s mass to its force in newtons.

Measurement of force

The measurement of force is a vital part of many industries. It can help ensure the safety of machinery and people, and improve quality control in production. Force measurement can verify that wire harnesses are crimped properly, radio volume dials respond with the optimum resistance when rotating, or window shades snap into place with just the right amount of force.

The most common method for measuring mass is by using a balance, which compares an unknown object with a standard reference object that has known mass. This can be done anywhere, even in space. Since the value of an object’s mass does not change with changes in gravity, a balanced scale can also be used to measure acceleration.

The standard unit for force is kilograms per square meter seconds squared, or newtons. It is derived from the SI base unit of mass, kilograms. It is often abbreviated N. IMADA offers various custom-made cases for force measurement, such as tensile tests on solar cell ribbons or peeling tests for copper foil of batteries.

Measurement of passive gravitational mass

Although it may seem like a distinction without much practical importance, there is a real difference between inertial mass and passive gravitational mass. Passive gravitational mass is a measure of the strength of a body’s reaction to gravity, while inertial mass measures its acceleration. This concept was developed in classical mechanics and has been experimentally verified to high accuracy since Galileo’s famous Pisa experiment. It was also the key assumption behind Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

The measurement of passive gravitational mass has been made possible by modern atomic clocks and the unified atomic mass unit (DA, or dalton). Unlike traditional units of weight, the DA is defined by fundamental physical constants. This has allowed scientists to measure the mass of many atoms and particles with great precision.

High-precision torsion balance experiments have confirmed that the equivalence of inertial and passive gravitational masses is independent of material composition. This is the strongest test of the equivalence principle so far, although more sensitive limits on longer-range forces can be placed by searching for anomalies such as the Nordtvedt effect.

Improve Productivity by Streamlining the Weighing Process

weighing process

Weighing processes are critical to the success of many production operations. Incorrectly portioning product can lead to quality issues, safety hazards & other production problems that directly impact the bottom line.

The weighing process typically involves several steps. Depending on application, the type of data recorded can vary as well as how that information is relayed & stored.

Workspace Preparation

Weighing raw materials is a crucial step in the manufacturing process. Accurate measurements are key for quality control, but weighing can be time-consuming and error-prone. ClickUp’s Weighing Raw Materials SOP Template eliminates guesswork and improves productivity by streamlining the weighing process.

Preparing the workspace for weighing is crucial to accurate results. This includes cleaning the area and ensuring all equipment is calibrated. It is also important to have all necessary supplies on hand, such as containers, gloves, and a weighing scale. ClickUp’s Tasks feature makes it easy to create a checklist and ensure all steps are completed.

Once the weighing is complete, any residual material must be transferred into another container. Pouring is usually sufficient, but it is best to use a glassine paper or other purpose-made weighing container to minimize the amount of material that sticks to the transfer tool. If needed, distilled water can be used to dislodge stubborn residue. The resulting solution can then be poured into the next container for weighing.

Equipment Setup

The equipment setup phase involves ensuring that all the necessary components of the weighing system are in place. This includes the load cells, weight controller, auxiliary instruments and local display.

Moisture and stray electrical noise can interfere with the low-voltage weight signal sent from the load cells to the weight controller. Moisture can wick itself into the junction box and reduce capacitance between the signal lines, while radio frequency interference (RFI) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) are electrical noise that can occur from lightning strikes, portable two-way radios, large power lines, static electricity and electromechanical relays.

Keeping the weighing chamber clean can also help prevent erroneous readings. Make sure the weighing chamber doors are always closed and don’t touch the weights with your hands to avoid cross contamination. Record the weight measurements directly into your lab notebook to eliminate transcription errors. Also, use face masks and disposable gloves to avoid breath fall or hand grease from affecting the readings.


During the weighing phase, you need to take the time to ensure that the balance is stable. This means it needs to be positioned in a draft-free area and away from heating/cooling vents, which can cause temperature variations that can affect the reading. It’s also important to avoid touching the standard weights with your hands because grease and oils can affect their mass.

For calibration purposes, you should periodically perform reproducibility tests and linearity testing on your balance. These are simple tests to verify that the balance delivers accurate readings in different positions. A balance that consistently delivers large deviations should be sent back to the manufacturer for a factory recalibration.

In quality control applications, fast & accurate checkweighing can make or break your operations. Weighing systems like ours can be integrated into your production line to help you reduce human error & maintain safety guidelines. Data tracking capabilities can also be built into your system, allowing you to record all the details of your production, such as how many products were over or under the target weight and when the errors occurred.


Process weighing is used in a wide variety of manufacturing environments. It may involve continuously monitoring levels or inventory, discharging materials by weight or rate, blending or batching ingredients, or measuring and controlling mass flow.

For example, when weighing liquids that are volatile, it is a good idea to use a container for the sample that will prevent it from evaporating during the weighing process. It is also advisable to tare the balance before adding the liquid. Then subtract the weight of the container and record the remaining weight to obtain your measurement result.

For solids, it is a good idea to weigh the sample in a receiver that is not too large for the scale and to record weights at identical intervals to reduce the influence of moisture absorption. It is also a good idea to use an antistatic device for powdered samples. In residential Aged Care, accurate weighing of residents is critical to ensure that any medical treatment has been effective.

How to Control Weight

In order to control weight, you must balance calories with exercise. You must also be aware of the impact of medications and some health conditions on your weight.

To avoid overeating, eat your meals at the table and be mindful of your eating. Try using smaller plates and bowls to help keep your portion sizes in check.

Eat a balanced diet

A healthy diet is an essential part of a balanced lifestyle. It should include a variety of fruits and vegetables, starchy foods that are higher in fiber like bread, grains, beans and potatoes, low-fat dairy products and lean proteins. It also includes small amounts of unsaturated fats and adequate fluids. It should be low in sugar and saturated fat and contain no added sodium. In addition, empty calories should be limited to prevent weight gain.

The United States Department of Agriculture recommends filling half your plate with non-starchy vegetables and a quarter of your plate with whole grains. It also recommends eating a serving of lean protein and a glass of milk at each meal. This plan helps you get the nutrients your body needs while keeping you from overeating and developing unhealthy habits. It can also help you lose or maintain weight and reduce your risk of certain diseases. It also supports a strong immune system and good digestive health.

Exercise regularly

In order to control weight, it is important to exercise regularly. Any form of physical activity will increase the number of calories that your body uses each day. It doesn’t have to be strenuous, but even simple activities such as walking or household chores can help. Regular exercise also helps prevent several diseases and improves overall health. It is recommended that adults do muscle-strengthening activities of moderate intensity on at least two days a week.

Avoid unhealthy fats

After World War II, research suggested a link between fats and heart disease. This led to a ‘fat war’. Unhealthy fats include the visible fat on meat, fried foods and processed snacks like biscuits and chips. They are often high in artery-clogging saturated and trans fats. Healthy fats are unsaturated and can be found in avocados, whole milk and full-fat dairy products, rapeseed oil, olive oils, oily fish and nuts.

Limit saturated and trans fats by eating lean meat, poultry and seafood. Choose vegetable oils (such as canola, safflower and sunflower) for cooking. Use low-fat or non-hydrogenated margarine and mayonnaise, and avoid butter and lard. Replace them with unsaturated fats, which can be found in avocados, nuts and seeds, and soy-based products such as tofu, soymilk and yoghurt.

Stay motivated

In order to control your weight, you must stay motivated. This is not easy, especially if you have to break old habits and face an unfamiliar challenge. Having a support system can help. Surround yourself with people who share your commitment to a healthy lifestyle, Gentilcore says. Exercise with friends or co-workers, take cooking classes together and cook healthy meals. Try to make exercise fun by taking the dog for a walk, shooting hoops with the kids or going on a bike ride. Set a goal on your calendar and cross it off, he suggests. This provides a sense of accomplishment.

The Principle of Scale That Guides Great Design

A scale measures weight. From the slightly skewed spring scale hanging around the produce aisle to the pit-and-girder monsters that weigh train cars and tractor-trailers, most scales work through devices called load cells.

Scale development can be deductive or inductive, and methods for item generation may include literature review or interviews with the target population. Previous studies have found that a large number of items are lost during the scaling process.


The principle of scale that guides great design can be confusing. It’s easy to get it wrong, but once you grasp it correctly you can use it to your advantage.

Scale is a ratio that represents the relative size of a model of an object or distance to the actual object or distance. A scale drawing or map is an accurate representation of a real object drawn to a specific ratio.

A series of fixed intervals, especially one beginning on a particular note: the major scale.

A scaly oxide film, as on iron that has been heated to high temperatures. Also called a scale incrustation.


Scale functions provide a variety of methods for transforming data. For example, scale() can increase the size of two-dimensional vectors by multiplying the value by a number. This method can also be used to transform 3-D shapes.

Another function is scaleThreshold, which maps continuous numeric input to a set of discrete values. It can also divide an integer into quartiles, or calculate the mean and standard deviation of a list of numbers.

The scale function can be used to classify music into diatonic, chromatic, and minor types based on their interval patterns. The scale function can also be used to create chord progressions in blues music.

Lastly, the scale function can be used to determine plus and minus weights. This can be useful for comparing items to a known weight for quality control purposes.


In the field of architecture, a scale is used to communicate relative proportions of different elements of a building. For example, the Greeks were able to comprehend the proportions of their temples by employing a module that was human-sized and could be easily grasped. This was key to their success, as it allowed them to perceive relationships between elements that were too far away to measure.

In other fields, such as the field of music, scales are employed to communicate intervals in a composition. Claude Debussy’s L’Isle Joyeuse is a good example of this. Interval scales have the properties of nominal and ordered variables, but they also allow for the calculation of ratios and proportions.

Architectural drawings are often made to scale, and it is important to choose the right scale for each drawing. This ensures that the drawing is clearly understood and can be reproduced accurately. Custom scales tend to show inexperience, and must be accompanied by a scale bar, so architects should always aim to use one of the set scales that are available.


Application scalability is the ability of an application to handle increasing demands without losing functionality or becoming slow and unresponsive. This feature is important in ensuring customer satisfaction and keeping businesses competitive.

Scalable applications are designed to support multiple load levels and can be scaled horizontally by adding additional web servers. This approach is common for websites, but it requires the system architecture to be designed with decoupled services so that the parallel servers do not exchange data.

Companies can benefit from economies of scale by passing on lower prices to customers, boosting loyalty and encouraging new business. This also allows them to invest in research and development, improve products, and provide higher wages or profit-sharing programs for employees. However, a single-minded focus on scale can have negative consequences, such as reducing opportunities for innovation, stunting employee growth and numbing sensitivity to industry changes. Diseconomies of scale can also arise from a lack of adequate transportation networks and inefficient production methods.

What Are Measures?

Measures are the building blocks of metrics. They provide companies with the raw data they need to recognize successes and understand challenges.

Several systems of measurement have existed throughout history. The scientific study of measurements is called metrology. The concept of measure is also used in mathematics. Measures can be negative, which leads to a concept known as a signed measure.


A measure is a characteristic of an object, event or situation, used as a factor in expressing quantities of that entity. Examples include the length, weight or force of an object; the volume and capacity of a vessel or container; or the number of units sold of a particular product.

In physics, measures are non-negative extensive properties conserved over a space (or more precisely over a finite set of objects), or their linear combinations. The limiting case of these forms is the positive measure. Negative values lead to signed measures, and generalizations such as the Liouville measure on a symplectic manifold are useful in Hamiltonian and classical statistical mechanics.

In the business world, measures rely more on inputs such as resources allocated and activities performed, while metrics track progress toward desired results based on those inputs. The term metric also refers to an aggregation of measures, such as a key metric. See definition of metrics for further information.


Time is a universal and fundamental quantity which can be measured in a number of ways. Accurate time measurement is essential for modern society, from telecommunications to GPS satellite navigation.

There are two basic types of time measurements: epochs, which specify an instant in time, and time intervals, which measure the duration of continued events. Most methods of time measurement use phenomena that repeat regularly, such as the daily cycle of day and night or the periodic motion of the bob of a free-swinging pendulum.

Several different specifications of time have been used, including those based on the apparent movement of the sun across the sky and the moon’s phases, and the more accurate atomic clocks invented in 1955. The most widely accepted is Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), which replaces earlier astronomical and calendar time standards such as sidereal time, ephemeris time, and leap seconds. Other scales, such as Terrestrial Dynamical Time and Barycentric Coordinate Time, are used mainly in scientific contexts.


Space measurements are used to determine the distances between objects. They are necessary because the units we use for measurement on Earth are not large enough to measure the vast distances in the Universe. For example, it would be impossible to describe the distance from the Earth to the Sun using kilometres as the unit of measure. Instead, the light year is used.

Each panel ranked the priorities of a wide range of existing and proposed space-based measurement approaches and missions. They also considered the implications of the science objectives for global change and the continuity requirements that must be met by the measurements.


Measurement is a fundamental part of modern science; it is also important in engineering, commerce and daily life. As such, the elements, conditions, limitations and theoretical foundations of measurement have been much studied.

A measurement is a comparison of an unknown quantity with some known quantity that has been calibrated to suit the measuring system. It may involve the use of a standard artifact (such as a metronome) or it may be based on comparisons with objects that have been characterized and fixed in quantity, such as the seven base units of the International System of Units.

Mathematical theories of measurement, such as representational theory, concern the relations that numbers (and other mathematical entities) have with things that are not numbers. For example, 60 is twice 30, but this relation does not always reflect relations among objects. For this reason, representational theory requires some assumptions about the nature of the relationships that can be measured.

Mass Measurement Basics

There are a large number of methods to measure mass, and it can be difficult to understand the terminology and statistics that go with them. This article covers some of the basic concepts involved in accurate mass measurement.

It is important to note that measuring mass does not always involve determining the weight of an object. For example, you can find the mass of an object by observing how it accelerates when force is applied.

What is Mass?

Mass is a property of matter and determines the strength of an object’s gravitational pull. It is also the measure of an object’s inertia, its resistance to change in acceleration when a net force is applied.

It is important to note that mass and weight are not the same thing. It takes more effort to move a bag of bricks than a bag of feathers because the bricks have more mass. The concept of mass underwent radical revisions after the introduction of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics.

The official definition of mass is now the kilogram, one of the seven base units that make up the International System of Units. Up until 2019, the kilogram was a physical object, a very specific cylinder of metals that was used as a standard. Now, the kilogram is a mathematical concept defined by physics equations. However, the two concepts are still closely related. Mass is a scalar quantity, while weight is a vector quantity that has both magnitude (a quantifiable value) and direction (down towards the center of Earth or any other gravity well). They can be the same for objects in space, but they can never be zero, as would happen if there were no gravitational attraction between them.

How is Mass Measured?

Objects have mass, which is an inherent property of matter. This property makes an object resistant to change in its motion unless acted upon by some force. This property is known as inertia.

Mass is measured using balances, which compare the weight of an unknown object with a set of reference masses. This is a great way to introduce kids to the concept of weight. This is also a great way to get kids interested in science.

The measurement unit for mass is the kilogram (kg). A kilogram of pure water has a specific gravimetric constant, so the mass of any solid can be determined by measuring the density of that material and using this constant as a correction factor.

Unlike weight, which changes depending on the size and location of an object, mass does not change. Your body’s mass is the same when you are curled up on a sofa or stretching as high as you can.

What Lab Equipment Is Used to Measure Mass?

The most common piece of lab equipment used to measure mass is the analytical balance or scale. These highly precise instruments are utilized in every scientific laboratory to accurately measure the weight of a wide variety of substances to sub-milligram levels of accuracy.

There are a number of different types of analytical balances and they come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Many modern analytical balances have electronic sensors and can be extremely sensitive. Some even have a draft shield to prevent air currents from interfering with the measurements being taken. When using an analytical balance, the weighing pan should be protected by a weigh boat or a piece of weighing paper to keep it clean and free from chemically reacted substances.

Pipets are also used to add and remove liquids from the weighing container. These are very delicate pieces of equipment and should be handled with care. In addition to the pipet, a pipette calibration balance can be used to calibrate the pipets before taking mass measurements.

What is the Metric System?

The metric system, or Systeme International d’Unites, is used all over the world to measure time, length, mass and temperature. It’s based on the idea that units get bigger or smaller by powers of 10. That means that a meter is 100 times longer than a centimeter, and a kilogram is 1,000 times heavier than a gram.

This logical relationship between sizes also applies to measurements of volume and area. For example, a cubic metre is a cube of 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm. One litre of water weighs 1 kg.

This makes sense to scientists because it allows all measurement systems to correlate and work with each other. It’s why all scientists use the metric system today. Changing over to another measuring system wouldn’t be easy for people, vehicles and road signs! Plus, it would be really confusing for kids.

The Different Types of Weighing Processes

Weighing processes can involve a variety of functions from the weighing of ingredients for quality control to measuring finished products. Each weighing process requires precise measurement to achieve its goals.

For mass calibrations the balance, test objects, and reference standards must be in thermal and environmental equilibrium. Careful operation of the balance and use of clean weights will improve accuracy.

Weighing Procedures

Any food production facility, whether a huge plant or small restaurant, needs to use proper weighing procedures in order to produce safe and high quality foods. Weighing is used in all phases of the process from preparing raw materials to final packaging and ensuring that products comply with federal standards.

Several important factors can influence the outcome of a weighing procedure. For example, a balance should be set up in a draft-free location on a solid bench to prevent vibrations. Ideally, the instrument and its weighing pan should also be in thermal equilibrium (e.g., allowing them to come to temperature simultaneously).

When handling fine powders, they can pick up static charge that affects the accuracy of the measurement. For this reason, antistatic devices may be useful. Chemicals that cannot be safely handled in a weighing dish can often be transferred to a preweighed tared piece of glazed paper by squeezing the edges together to form a funnel, and then letting the substance run down the crease.

Analytical Balances

An analytical balance is a key piece of equipment used for precise measurements in labs. These highly sensitive devices need to be kept clean and in good working condition. They should also be periodically calibrated to ensure the accuracy of their results.

The ability of an analytical balance to correctly display a known calibration weight is referred to as its repeatability. It can be tested by putting the same load on the scale, such as a 20-gram calibration weight, and measuring it several times. A reading that is close to the same each time, or within a certain number of divisions, indicates a high degree of repeatability.

Analytical and precision balances are used in many different applications, including differential weighing, formulation, density determination, pipette calibration, parts counting and gross-net-tare weighing. They are essential tools for quality control, manufacturing and research laboratories. They may also be used in pharmacies to weigh medication and medical supplies. They often come with additional features such as a taring function, dynamic weighing and backlighting.

Weighing Dishes

Weighing dishes are safe, contaminant-free, biologically inert economical containers for weighing liquid or powdered samples in the laboratory. They are molded with a smooth surface that facilitates accurate pour-outs and minimizes sample loss. They are not reactive with most substances and will withstand temperatures up to 80oC.

Some weighing systems come with data management capabilities that relay information automatically. This information may be displayed on local indicators, PLC outputs or transmitted to a remote display for monitoring & review. Weighing system experts at Michelli can help you select the right data management system to meet your business requirements.

It is important to avoid touching the weighing pans with bare hands because oils or other contaminants can cause inaccurate readings. It is also important to handle the weights with clean tools to avoid scratching the weighing plates. The aluminum weighing dishes offered by Lab Depot are ideal for general purpose weighing, moisture determination and plasma ashing applications (pre-embedding). These disposable aluminum dishes have tabs or crimped edges and can be used as evaporating dishes, dust covers and as weighing vessels in EM labs.

Paper Weighing

Weighing paper can be a bit confusing, with the many different ways stock is rated and categorized. In North America, two of the most common ratings are points and pounds. A point (also known as pt) is the thickness of the paper measured in 1/1000th of an inch. The higher the number, the thicker the paper.

Pounds, on the other hand, are a measurement of how much 500 sheets of a paper size weigh in its uncut form. This is why you might see a paper rated as 80 lb cover, for example: it weighs about what 500 sheets of that type of paper would weight in its base uncut form before cutting to letter or legal size. Other countries use the metric system method, which specifies that one square meter of the standard sheet size of a paper weighs X grams. This is why you can be more accurate when comparing papers between different countries.

How to Control Weight and Manage Cravings

Controlling weight involves balancing calories and eating the right amount to fuel your body. This includes avoiding yo-yo dieting and finding ways to manage cravings.

Psychologists often work with individuals struggling to maintain a healthy weight. This may be as part of their private practice or in a hospital or other health care setting.


Exercise is an important part of a healthy lifestyle, regardless of your weight. Whether you participate in team sports, take a jog or dance, all physical activity helps you burn calories. Exercising can also reduce your risk for certain diseases, improve your mood and increase strength and flexibility. However, it is important to know what types of exercises are best for your body. A doctor can recommend specific exercises that will work well for you. Regular exercise also requires consistency. Trying to exercise once or twice a week won’t give you the comprehensive results you need to control your weight.

Reduce Screen Time

The time you spend watching TV, using computers or playing video games is often time that could be better spent being physically active. Studies show that excessive screen time is associated with sedentary behaviors, unfavorable dietary habits and disrupted sleep.

Children who watch TV and play video games have less time for physical activities and are more likely to be overweight. Exposure to media violence may also desensitize children to the seriousness of violent behavior and teach them that it is a normal way to solve problems.

Limiting screen time is important for everyone, but it’s especially important for kids and teens. Start by monitoring your family’s total screen time (TV, DVD, computer and handheld electronic devices) and setting a goal to reduce it.

Watch Portion Sizes

Portion sizes are an important element of a healthy diet, as they help people stay within their daily energy needs and avoid overeating. While there are many tools available to measure portions, such as food scales or measuring cups, people can also learn portion sizes by comparing them to everyday objects like their hand. The palm of one’s hand can be used to measure servings of protein, while a fist can be used to determine the size of carbohydrate servings. A thumb and fingers can be used to measure servings of salad dressing, oil or nut butter.

Increasing awareness about how much they are eating can help people tune into their internal hunger and fullness cues, which in turn can reduce overeating and support weight loss.

Manage Stress

Stress may be one of the most significant barriers to healthy eating and exercise. It raises the hormone cortisol, which makes your body store fat for energy and changes your immune system. It also messes with the endocrine system, raising adrenaline and decreasing the hormone leptin (which signals satiety). Stress can increase cravings for fatty, sugary foods and reduce your appetite for nutrient-rich ones.

Learning to manage stress, whether through meditation, yoga or even a quick walk in the park, can help you control your weight. Similarly, if your stress comes from taking on too much at home or work, try to learn how to say no and ask for help. Seeing a counselor or psychologist could be helpful as well, depending on the source of your stress.

Identifying and Validating Scales

Some researchers use existing scales that fit their construct and domain, some modify a published scale for a new study, and others develop their own. When utilizing an existing scale, it is important to identify the type of scale used (see Table 3), validate the scale with appropriate procedures (see Table 5), and report exactly how it was deployed.


In math, scale is a ratio that compares corresponding sides of two figures. This concept is also applied to models, maps, blueprints and the scale you weigh yourself on. Ratios are all around us, but some are more obvious than others, such as the scale on a map or blueprint or the ratio of ingredients when making cement.

Scale is also the set of tones that forms a musical mode. The most common scale is the diatonic scale, but there are many different scales used in music throughout the world. Each scale has a characteristic interval pattern and a specific starting point (or tonic) note.

The term “scale” can also refer to any thin, platelike piece or lamina that peels away from a surface, as from the skin. It can also mean the flat, horny plates that form the covering of some animals, as snakes or lizards. Finally, it can be used to describe a system of compensation, such as pay scales for actors or musicians.


Historically, scales have been developed in order to improve the accuracy of measurement. They were largely developed through trial and error, with inventors such as Leonardo da Vinci lending their hand to the development.

Scales also play an important role in the analysis of music from nonliterate cultures and folk music. However, their function as theoretical concepts is more prominent in the music of highly sophisticated cultures (variously described as art music, classical music, cultivated music or high culture music).

Musical scales are often taught to students as part of their formal instruction. They may be learned intuitively through experience or taught explicitly using written music theory. Some scales can be identified by their constituent intervals, such as being hemitonic or cohemitonic. Alternatively, they can be recognized by the repetition of characteristic melodic motives, such as the tumbling strains described by Curt Sachs in the singing of Australian Aboriginal peoples. This can help distinguish different types of scales even when they are sung at the same pitch level.


There are four different types of scale: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. These classifications describe the level of information recorded within a variable and influence what kind of statistical analyses you can perform on your data.

A nominal scale has categories that you can name and doesn’t have a natural order, such as gender, college major or blood type. It’s the simplest form of measurement and can be used to categorize or label observations. You can either leave these labels as they are or you can code them to identify the groups you want to compare.

An interval scale is a step up from nominal. It allows you to rank your observations in an ordered way and also lets you add or subtract them. You can think of intervals like the temperature in Celsius and Fahrenheit, credit scores and SAT test results. It’s also possible to use ratios on an interval scale, such as when rating someone’s response time, like Amar took 2.3 seconds longer than Becky did.


Scalable apps provide a high-quality user experience and prevent performance issues that can degrade brand trust. They also ensure that applications can accommodate growth without sacrificing performance or adding complexity.

A scale drawing can make it easier to interpret complex objects and structures, such as blueprints or machinery. It can also help architects, machine-makers and designers work with models of objects that are too large to hold. A map scale shows the relative size of geographic features, such as mountains and rivers, by using a ratio. Many maps include both verbal and representative fraction (RF) scales.

There are several ways to make an application more scalable, such as adding more CPUs or increasing memory limits. However, these methods increase the overall speed of the application but don’t address problems that arise from complex interactions between different parts of the software. A better approach is horizontal scaling, which involves distributing workloads across multiple machines in the same cluster.

What Are Measures?

Measures are facts about reality that can be expressed in numbers. They can be quantitative, qualitative or a combination of both. They are usually characterized by their type, magnitude and unit.

A measurement strategy is a useful tool for analyzing the success of your marketing efforts. It also helps establish clear communication between marketers across the company.


The quantitative approach to research hinges on collecting and analyzing data. It involves a number of different steps, including designing and conducting experiments. Quantitative research also relies on collecting a variety of numerical observations, such as the length of a plant’s stem or the number of bees in a hive.

In order to evaluate the validity of a quantitative measure, researchers must look at several factors. One important factor is reliability. This includes assessing whether the measure is accurate, consistent and can be reproduced. Another is criterion validity, which considers the extent to which the scores on the measure reflect the construct that they are supposed to.

Other aspects of the validity of a quantitative measurement include its ability to produce statistically significant results, and whether it produces a valid interval or ratio variable. Examples of interval level variables are mode, median and mean, while ratio level variables include indices like the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, which is a composite score that combines multiple items into a single numeric value.


Quantitative measures rely on numbers and values to convey information. Qualitative measurement delves deeper into concepts and feelings. It involves interviews with open-ended questions and observation in real world settings. The goal is to gather detailed descriptions of people’s reactions, perceptions and experiences.

For example, an assessment might focus on a specific community’s level of empowerment or how well it relates to local culture. These are results that cannot be tallied or neatly fit into a quantitative framework, but they’re important to measure.

Using qualitative methods to collect data can help you better understand how and why people react as they do in a certain setting. Qualitative assessments involve observing a situation and taking notes, either as a participant or as an outsider (for example, in a hospital’s intensive care unit). This type of research is iterative and may include multiple sessions of observation and interviewing. Observations are analyzed thematically to identify trends and patterns.


Measures are the numbers that can be summed or averaged, such as sales, leads, distances, durations and temperatures. They are used alongside dimensions, which categorize data into categories like sales reps, cities and products.

Combinations are selections of objects that can be made from a larger collection. The mathematics of combinations is known as combinatorics and includes the nCr formula for enumerating all possible combinations of a set n with r objects selected at random.

You can create views that combine multiple measures by adding them to the Rows or Columns shelves. When you do this, the marks for each distinct measure are displayed on the same axis. You can then customize the mark properties for each measure—for example, the shape, size and color encoding. You can also compare the results of two different measures using dual axes—two independent axes that are layered in the same pane.


The unit of measurement is a standardized quantity for a physical property. It serves as a factor for measuring occurring quantities of that property, such as length or mass. Often, different units for a same quantity exist. They may be converted to each other through multiplicative conversion factors, i.e. a kilogram divided by one meter is equal to 1,000 milliliters.

Many traditional systems of measurement were based on dimensions of the human body, such as the cubit based on the length of the forearm and the pace based on the width of a stride or the foot and hand. Such units, referred to as anthropic, are still used in some cultures.

Currently, scientifically-defined and internationally agreed upon units are used worldwide. These are known as the SI (International System of Units). They consist of seven base units: the metre for length, the second for time, the kelvin for temperature, the mole for the number of atoms in an object, the candela for brightness and the kilogram for weight.