Creating Measures in Excel


Measures are standardized, calculated units that quantify values. They’re important for describing data and creating visualizations.

To take someone’s measure, to evaluate their character or capabilities: he took her measure as a potential employee.

A semifinite measure on a measurable set is a countable, translation-invariant, finitely additive function. Lebesgue measures and circular angle measures are examples of such measures.

Choosing the Right Measures

Measures are critical for understanding company performance. But the right measures provide insight into strategic management; the wrong ones waste time and resources. It’s easy to report on too much data, so selecting the right metrics requires careful consideration and discussion. It’s also tempting to choose data that appears interesting or impressive. For example, a service availability of 98% is impressive, but it doesn’t translate into the business context of “enabling our business colleagues to produce 1000+ widgets for three consecutive months.”

To avoid the temptation to select the first measures that look good, start by applying a strategic framework. Use a framework like the SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound) framework to identify and select meaningful measurements. Then talk about your measures with your colleagues to ensure that they resonate with them and reflect the MVGs from their perspective. Finally, confirm that the measures can actually be measured. This may be the most important step in ensuring that your measurements are effective.

Creating Measures in DAX

Creating measures is a powerful feature that allows users to perform complex calculations and insights into their data. However, it is important to follow best practices and troubleshoot issues when using this feature to avoid pitfalls that can reduce performance.

Unlike calculated columns, which are pre-calculated during data loading and stored in the data model, measures must be applied at runtime by the user. This makes them more flexible than calculated columns, but they can also increase the size of the data model and slow down performance if not designed properly.

To create a measure, you must use the MEASURE keyword and define the table on which it will be applied. Then, you must declare an expression that aggregates the data and return a value. This is done using DAX functions such as SUMX, AVERAGEX, and COUNTX. For example, a measure might be defined as COUNTROWS(Sales) + (DiscountPricePerUnit)/(ListPricePerUnit). The measure must always return a value in the filter context in which it is used.

Creating Measures in Excel

The distinction between dimensions and measures is an important one. A measure conveys very little information on its own, but is useful when combined with other dimensions. Its most basic function is to add up numbers, and it can be further augmented with other functions such as count, average, sum, etc.

Creating your first measure is easy in Power Pivot. You can do this in either the Pivot Table or Data Model view. Creating a measure is much like adding a field, except that you need to drag it into the Values section of the Pivot Table.

Once added, a measure becomes a field and is automatically grouped with other similar fields in the Values section of your Pivot Table, called the Measure Group. This allows you to easily sort your pivot table by a single measure, avoiding the need for complex filter and slicer logic. Measures are also portable, which means they can be used in other tables and reports.

Creating Measures in Power BI

To create a measure, select the table that contains the metric you want to add and then click New Measure on the ribbon. Then, enter a name for the measurement and define the calculation formula using DAX syntax.

You can use the DAX formula suggestion feature to help you write your formulas. This is helpful because it eliminates the need to manually type your formula and helps you avoid mistakes.

When you’re finished, you can use your measure in any visualization by dragging it into the values area of a report. Your measure will update automatically as you filter or change the context of your report.

Creating effective measures is a critical part of Power BI and requires a thorough understanding of how to use the tools available. Formatting your measure table and adding clear descriptions improves usability and makes it easier for users to interpret and understand the data. It also ensures that the metrics are accurate and up to date.

The Difference Between Mass and Weight

mass measurement

Mass and weight are two measurements that often get confused. The amount of matter that something has is its mass, but its weight changes depending on the gravitational force acting on it.

The most common way to measure mass is with a balance. Let’s explore some other methods of determining an object’s mass.

What is Mass?

Most students are taught to weigh things using a balance. That is a great way to introduce the concepts of weight and mass, but it doesn’t teach the real definition of each term.

Mass is a property of matter, regardless of its location in the universe. It is a fundamental quantity with the SI unit of kilogram (kg).

Weight is a force that depends on gravitational attraction. Two objects of the same size can have different weights because gravity affects them differently. An object’s weight can change, for example, when it is moved to a different planet with a stronger or weaker gravity. However, the object’s mass will stay the same. Many people get the two terms confused and use them interchangeably, but they are different measurements.

Gravitational Force

The gravitational force that exists between objects with mass attracts them and causes them to fall toward each other. This is a universal law of nature that was first postulated by Sir Isaac Newton in 1687. Gravity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the centers of the two masses and increases with the mass of the objects.

In technical contexts, engineers use the term kilogram-force to describe the standard value of gravity (symbol: G) at Earth’s surface—9.80665 m/s2—and they convert mass to a corresponding unit of force in newtons. Objects weigh differently on different planets, depending on their size and the strength of their gravity, but they always have the same mass.

Ever since the 17th century, scientists have tried to measure the strength of gravity in a laboratory. The most precise technique uses a torsion balance. Students can experiment with this equipment and record the results on graph paper. They can also write an equation from the data to show the relationship between the force of gravity and the mass of the object.

Weighing Scales

A scale is the instrument used to measure the amount of matter in an object. It can be used in a variety of applications, from measuring a person’s body weight to weighing ingredients for baking. Weighing scales are also commonly found in chemistry labs and other scientific settings.

The most common scales used in mass measurement are balances, which compare unknown masses to a known quantity – in this case standard weights. This allows the scale to provide a reading that is independent of changes in gravity. In modern weighing scales, load cells convert the downward force into a proportional electrical signal that can then be converted and displayed to show weight on an indicating element.

When weighing samples in a laboratory, it’s important to remove the added weight of the container, as this can bias the results. This process is called taring, and it can be accomplished by pressing a tare button on the instrument.

Lab Equipment

Measurements of mass are vital for numerous scientific disciplines, including chemistry. The most common method of measuring mass is with a balance, which utilizes an object’s gravitational acceleration to determine its weight. A precise balance is necessary to ensure that all of your measurements are accurate.

For liquid measurements, lab tools like graduated cylinders, pipettes, and burettes provide precise measurements that are vital for accurate chemical reactions. These instruments are engineered with precision in mind, enabling scientists to achieve incredibly small quantities without error.

Other important lab equipment includes a variety of glassware, weighing scales, and heat sources like Bunsen burners and hot plates. Proper storage and organization of all laboratory apparatus helps to ensure that it is safe for use. It also facilitates easy retrieval, reducing time spent searching for the right equipment for an experiment. The right lab apparatus can make or break an experiment, so it is important to carefully assess your needs and select the correct equipment.

The Importance of Weighing in Manufacturing Processes

Weighing is a critical step in almost every manufacturing process. We can help you develop a custom weighing system that fits seamlessly into your production flow, improving efficiency and accuracy while keeping up with compliance standards.

A typical filling weighing system starts with holding bins for each minor ingredient. Then a conveyor transports the ingredients to a trough mounted on load cells for weighing.


A balance’s accuracy is a combination of trueness (closeness of measurement results to the actual or known value) and precision (the closeness of repeated measurements to each other). Depending on your application, you may need more precise results than accurate ones.

The most important part of a weighing system for achieving the desired accuracy is the load cell(s). They convert the applied load into a proportional electrical signal, which the weighing instrumentation then transforms into a weight reading.

For best accuracy, a load cell should be capable of supporting the total load without bending or twisting. Check for shock loading by controlling the material flow onto the weighing system, using a feeder or specially designed loading chute to prevent heavy loads from dumping on the load cells. Also ensure that the floor or structure under the load cells is strong enough to resist forces greater than the rated capacity of the scale. Lastly, use calibrated calibration weights to verify the weighing system.


The accuracy of the weighing system depends on the load cell’s capability to convert force into a precise electrical signal. However, the performance of a weighing system is enhanced by other components that work together to improve efficiency.

For example, a batching system combines automation controls with scales or hoppers to measure and dispense specific quantities of ingredients or materials into a process. This reduces waste by ensuring that dispensing requirements are met every time.

Similarly, integrated scale indicators that communicate with PLCs enable weighing results to trigger actions such as opening valves or adjusting feed rates. This automation optimises processes, reducing costs and increasing productivity. In addition, regular balance validation ensures accurate measurements and helps meet quality standards for critical manufacturing applications like pharmaceuticals. A functioning management programme can promote a seamless flow of operations, consistent product quality and long-term profitability.


Using the right scales for your processes can reduce raw material waste, rework and product defects. This can lower your manufacturing costs and boost profits. In addition, automated weighing can help minimize safety risks.

Flexibility is the ability of muscles, joints, and soft tissues to move through a range of motion without pain. This flexibility is important for good health and is usually measured using a tool called a goniometer. These devices have a body similar to a protractor and two thin extensions that are positioned along the bones of the affected area.

While the concept of flexibility is easy to grasp, it can become complex and difficult to evaluate in practice. Many different definitions of flexibility exist in the literature, but they lack a common structure or framework. This study proposes a classification of the different types of flexibility to improve distinguishability and clarity. The proposed definitions also allow for a more accurate and systematic evaluation of flexibility.


Weighing is often done in lab environments where chemicals are used, which requires extra precaution. This is why it is important to take safety measures like using a fume hood when handling chemicals and cleaning up the scale after use. It is also a good idea to keep the balance away from areas where food or personal belongings are stored.

Using proper storage techniques for the weighing weights can help reduce errors caused by skin oils and changing ambient temperatures. This is especially true for precision balances, which must be handled carefully to avoid damage.

In addition to reducing errors, automated weighing systems provide data-driven insights that can help businesses optimize their production processes. This can lead to a more seamless manufacturing process, resulting in reduced bottlenecks and higher efficiency. They also offer a simpler onboarding process for new staff, with the system managing most of the complexities that traditionally come with manual weighing. This can greatly reduce training time and minimize the risk of beginner mistakes.

How to Control Weight Through Diet and Exercise

control weight

The best way to control weight is through diet and exercise. Many health professionals recommend eating 5 or more smaller meals a day, drinking lots of water and staying away from processed foods.

Foods that help prevent disease, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains and fatty fish, also seem to promote healthy weight. Limiting fried foods and cooking with polyunsaturated oils may help reduce fat intake.

Healthy eating

Eating a balanced diet can help you feel your best and lower your risk of certain diseases, including heart disease and diabetes. However, it can be difficult to sort through all the conflicting nutrition and diet advice.

The good news is that many of the same diet changes that decrease disease risk also seem to improve weight control. Choose whole foods, like fruits, vegetables, nuts, and fish, while limiting unhealthy fats and sugary drinks.

Healthy eating is important at every life stage and can be customized to fit your tastes, cultural traditions, and budget. Learn more about healthy eating and how to make it work for you. The key is to focus on the overall dietary pattern, not specific foods or nutrients. To improve your diet, start by making small changes and stick with it over time. This will help you create a healthy, sustainable lifestyle. You can also consult a registered dietitian for personalized nutrition guidance.

Physical activity

Increasing regular physical activity is important for weight control, as it helps to balance the calories eaten with the calories used through physical activity. Getting at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most days is recommended. This can include both structured exercise and daily activities, such as walking, swimming, or household chores. Several hormones that are released during physical activity help regulate appetite and satiety. In addition, physical activity can improve mood and promote feelings of well-being. (Refer to the handbook Weight Control and Physical Activity for a detailed discussion of these topics.) (c) 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Stress management

Stress is a common factor in weight gain and can interfere with your efforts to lose weight. If you are struggling with stress, check in with your doctor. They may prescribe medications to help alleviate the short-term effects of stress or recommend some other techniques for reducing your long-term stress levels.

Stress has been shown to cause a behavioral shift towards high-fat, -salt and -sugar foods as a way of trying to cope with the feeling. It also encourages the body to store fat more in the abdominal region as a survival mechanism (Daubenmier et al. 2011).

There are many ways to reduce your stress, including physical exercise, meditation and relaxation techniques. Incorporating these into your daily routine can help lower cortisol levels, which will help you maintain a healthy weight. It is also important to delegate responsibilities to others, and get enough sleep each night. This will give you the energy to deal with stressful situations and emotions.


Studies have shown that people who get less sleep are at a higher risk of obesity, and that shifting to more healthy sleeping patterns can help manage weight. One study found that people who got more than 8.5 hours of sleep per night lost significantly more fat mass during a 12-week weight loss program than those who got only 5.5 hours of sleep per day. The researchers attribute this to the fact that sleep deprivation alters appetite-regulating hormones, with people getting less sleep exhibiting lower levels of leptin, which promotes satiety, and higher levels of ghrelin, which promotes hunger. This shift in hormones can result in a greater exploitation of energy resources (i.e., increased caloric intake).

What Is Scale?


A small thin plate that forms the outer covering on fish and reptiles. A similar part covers the wings of butterflies and moths.

In step 1 (item generation), most studies used deductive approaches to generate the initial item pool, whereas only a small minority combined deductive and inductive methods. This limitation may negatively influence the content validity of the resulting scale.


Scale is a ratio that represents the relationship between a dimension on a model or blueprint and the corresponding dimension of an object in real life. We use scales to shrink vast areas of land down to small pieces of paper on a map, and we also use them when architects and machinists need to work with models that would be too large to hold if they were their actual size.

A gradation or series of steps, especially one ascending or descending according to fixed intervals: The scales of justice; the musical scale of do-re-mi-fa-sol-la-ti-do.

The scaly covering on fish, reptiles and some other animals, and on the leaves of some plants. A scaly, mineral coating on iron or steel when it is heated to high temperatures. A system of tones used to build melodies and harmonies, with many different scales used in various cultures around the world. A smart presentation can tip the scales in your favor.


Scale is an important concept in a variety of fields. However, ambiguity and confusion remain regarding the various types of scale and their definitions. This is a major obstacle when trying to study patterns and their underlying processes.

For example, a scale used in maps shows the ratio of the size of an object shown on the map to its actual size on the ground. This is especially helpful for bringing large areas of land down to a smaller, more manageable size. It also allows machinists and designers to handle models of objects that would be too big to keep on hand if they were their actual size.

The survey results indicate that the majority of participants found spatial and temporal scales to be important in their work. They also indicated that the Modelling, Geographic, and Cartographic scales were more closely related to remote sensing than the Policy and Operational scales. However, the survey results also revealed that some participants felt that these types of scales had less applicability than other types of scales.


The process of creating a scale involves multiple steps. Some of these steps are theoretical and others involve analyzing data. Some of the problems that can occur during the scale development process include failure to define the construct domain, poor choice of a measurement model, inadequate use of techniques that can help establish validity (e.g., convergent and discriminant validity), inappropriate item redaction, and small sample sizes (e.g., Flight et al., 2011, lost more than 50% of their initial item pool during the validation process).

The polarity of a scale can be either bipolar or unipolar. A bipolar scale uses the two theoretical extremes of a concept, for example, satisfied and dissatisfied. A unipolar scale, on the other hand, only has one theoretical extreme and no neutral midpoint. Choosing the right polarity can have a significant impact on the data quality. For instance, a unipolar scale would be more prone to social desirability bias than a bipolar one.


Many people misunderstand the term “scale.” They use it interchangeably with such concepts as “size” and “proportion,” but they have different meanings in science and practice. This article is designed to help you distinguish between these distinct and important concepts.

The first step in scale development is referred to as item generation, and it can be carried out by either deductive or inductive methods. Deductive methods involve the creation of items based on existing measures. In contrast, inductive methods rely on opinions gathered from the target population via interview-focus group data.

During the second step, often called the theory-building phase, researchers evaluate whether their initial items represent the construct they are trying to measure. This is done by examining inter-item correlations and assessing for content validity. Generally, it is advisable to develop more items than you want to include in your final scale because some of them may be removed during the psychometric analysis. This systematic review found that only a minority of studies considered the opinion of members of the target population when evaluating item content validity.

What Are Measures?


Measures are classifications of raw data such as numbers or values. They enable unambiguous comparisons.

Measuring is an essential aspect of trade, science and technology. It involves comparing an unknown quantity with a known or standard one. The result is a number, or metric. There are many different measurement systems.


A measure is a set of quantities that allows for comparing and quantifying aspects of objects or events. It’s a formalized and mathematical extension of geometrical measures such as length, area, and volume as well as other common notions such as magnitude and mass. Measures are also central to concepts such as probability and integration theory.

The axioms of measure are the basic assumptions that allow measurements to be made. These include the axioms of order, axioms of extension, axioms of difference, and axioms of conjointness. They ensure that the order imposed by assigning numbers to objects is the same order that can be observed or measured in actual observation or measurement.

A measure m displaystyle m of a set X displaystyle X is said to be s-finite if it can be decomposed into a countable union of measurable sets with finite measure. This is analogous to the definition of a Lebesgue measurable set in probability theory.


Measures are used to perform calculations on data such as aggregations and ratios. They can be created using a variety of functions such as SUM, AVERAGE, and COUNT. Measures are dynamic and will automatically update as your data changes. They can be used in a wide variety of visualizations.

It is important to identify the purpose of measurement before implementing it. This will help you determine the best approach for gathering data and interpreting results. A common purpose for measuring is to make decisions, such as whether or not a process is working effectively.

Other purposes for measuring include improving quality, monitoring, safety, making something fit (design, assembly), and problem solving. It is also important to consider what impact the measurement will have on the overall process and if it has the potential to be misleading. For example, a measure may provide a false sense of security if the data is not correctly collected or reported.


There are different types of measures, depending on their use and purpose. Process measures focus on how processes are performed, while outcome measures focus on the outcomes of those processes. Balancing measures are those that help you identify areas where improvements can be made while ensuring that any changes don’t negatively impact other parts of the system.

There are four basic scales of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. These scales have specific properties that determine how the data can be analysed. They are also referred to as measure spaces. In mathematics, a measure space is s-finite if it is closed and contains finitely many points. However, a set with countably many points is not Lebesgue measurable even though it has measure one. This is a consequence of the axiom of choice.


A measure is a concept used in mathematics to generalize and formalize geometrical measures (length, area, volume) and other common notions such as magnitude and mass. It is a central concept in probability theory and integration theory and it has far-reaching generalizations, such as spectral measures and projection-valued measures on symplectic manifolds.

The word measure is also used in a variety of contexts outside of mathematics to refer to instruments that are designed for measuring, such as a ruler or a tape measure. However, the word measure is rarely used in this sense in everyday language.

Measuring is an essential part of science, engineering and other disciplines. It is important to track metrics that are both accurate and aligned with your objectives. It can be helpful to break down your goals into multiple metrics, but only track the ones that will directly contribute to achieving them.

What Is Mass Measurement?

In physics, mass measurement is used to determine the amount of matter in an object. It is often compared to weight, which is a measure of the force of gravity on an object.

Both measurements are made using a numbering system. The most common metric units are the meter, kilogram, and liter. Equal quotients indicate an equal ratio between the two numbers.


Weight is the force of gravitation acting on an object, determined by its mass and its acceleration due to gravity. Objects are measured for their weight using spring or balance scales, which work by comparing the object with references (either other objects or zero-gravity containers).

Your “weight” will depend on where you measure it — a pineapple has different weight than a wooden baseball bat. This is because weight depends on the strength of gravity, while mass depends only on the amount of matter it contains.

The SI base unit for mass is the kilogram, defined as the mass of the international prototype, a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sevres, France. Six prefixes are used to define the smaller units of the metric system. They are shown in the table below.


Density is a fundamental measure of the amount of mass contained within a given volume. It is an important concept for many different science fields, from physics and geology to biology and chemistry. It can help scientists predict how substances will interact under certain conditions, like whether a solid substance will sink or float in a liquid. It is also used to differentiate substances that might appear similar to the human eye, such as comparing gemstones of the same colour.

A material’s density can be determined by dividing its mass by its volume. This can be done using a variety of techniques and equipment, such as a hydrometer (for liquids), an immersed body balance (for solids), or an air comparison pycnometer (for liquids and solids). There is a long tradition of beginning physics with careful measurements of volume and mass and calculations of density. Students may find the calculation tedious, since it requires an attention to detail that is often more than what they are accustomed to at school.


Engineers in disciplines involving weight loading (force on a structure due to gravity), like structural engineering, understand the distinction between mass and force. They use a formula, based on Einstein’s famous equation E = mc2, to convert the object’s mass into its corresponding force.

Those who work with rigging also know that a device’s force calibration is affected by local air density and material densities, not only by its mass and the local gravitational acceleration. This is why a force-measuring device calibrated in one location using mass weights must be checked against a reference standard, such as a standard kilogram of mass and the non-SI kilogram-force or avoirdupois pound of the English system of measurement.

Inaccurate mass and force measurements have serious consequences, from the quality of products and equipment to the safety of people working with them. That’s why the accurate measurement of these quantities is so important to industries including aerospace, construction, automotive, electronics, manufacturing and pharmaceutical.


In physics, gravity is one of the most important forces that governs our world. It is the force that attracts all things that have mass toward every other thing with mass. Isaac Newton elevated the phenomenon from inscrutable tendency of objects to fall to the ground to a well-understood and predictable force that holds all matter together.

For example, if you drop two identical clocks at the same time from a tall mountain peak and then switch their positions at sea level, they will run at different rates, reflecting the effect of gravity. Gravity is also responsible for the fact that a balloon rises higher in the atmosphere than it does at the bottom of a deep valley, and for why a car rolls faster down an inclined plane than it does on a flat surface.

But measuring the force of gravity is a challenge. The best way is with a device called a torsion balance, used in labs at NIST and around the world.

The Importance of Accurate Weighing Processes in Food Production

weighing process

Weighing plays a significant role in the food production process. Accurate weighing is key to maintaining quality and meeting compliance standards. Inaccurate weighing can cause products to be out of specification and cost the business money.

Level or inventory weighing applications involve monitoring the level of a storage vessel. They don’t usually require time-critical weight cutoffs.


Accuracy is a critical specification that must be taken into account when choosing a scale or balance. However, it is not a standalone variable; it depends on other specifications, such as repeatability and linearity. Accuracy is also dependent on how the weighing instrument is installed and operated in your environment.

For example, if your weigh vessel is subject to vibrations from nearby equipment, the sensitive load can interpret these as weight changes and lead to inaccurate results. Similarly, sudden large temperature fluctuations can affect the accuracy of your system.

Inaccuracies can also occur if the weight of your material is not evenly distributed across the whole weigh vessel. This can cause the strain gauges in your load cells to twist, which will change the signal from the wheatstone bridge and create an error that will be transmitted to your display or indicator. This is known as hysteresis. To reduce this, use a rigid support structure to keep the weight from spreading out.


Traceability is a concept that defines the ability to track and trace unique and identifiable entities in a way that is verifiable. It’s used in a variety of applications including measurement, supply chain, software development and healthcare.

It’s important for food producers because it allows them to track and trace all the steps of production. This allows them to quickly find any issues and take corrective action if needed. It also helps them comply with regulations.

Effective traceability requires all parties involved in the process to cooperate. This includes suppliers, freight, logistics and food processing companies. It also involves establishing and maintaining an audit trail, which is crucial in regulated industries. In addition, traceability enables streamlined inventory management and reduced costs. This is achieved by tracking inventory movements and capturing details about the handling history of each product. These details can be used for forecasting and optimizing stock control and storage. It can also help businesses save money by reducing waste and rework.


There are a few elements that can affect the reliability of your weighing system. Some of them include environmental factors, such as large temperature changes, which can cause the weigh vessel to expand or contract. This can lead to errors in the weight reading and damage the load cells. If you want to minimise these errors, you should use a weighing system with accurate load cells and mounting hardware that can handle large temperature changes.

Another important factor is the accuracy of the weighing system itself. Having an accurate and reliable weighing system is essential for food manufacturing applications. These applications can include continuous monitoring of a silo or inventory, batch weighing, and discharging material by rate.

These weighing systems need to be highly accurate, as even small errors can have a huge impact on the quality of the product. To maximize the accuracy of a weighing system, you should choose high-quality load cells that are created to work with your system and adhere to good installation guidelines.


While the initial investment in automated weighing processes may be high, the long-term benefits far outweigh the costs. This is because fewer raw materials are lost due to accurate measurements, and product consistency can help businesses meet customer demand more efficiently.

In food production, for example, accurate weighing ensures that ingredients are added in the correct order. This reduces waste and maintains the quality of the finished product. This level of precision is also important for food safety and compliance with regulatory standards.

Direct weighing is a simple method that eliminates the need for intermediate steps. This method uses a load cell to measure applied force, which is translated into an electrical signal. This signal is compared to a preset reference value, allowing for fast and accurate measurement. The resulting signal is displayed on the local display, which can be used in gain-in-weight and loss-in-weight applications. Typical applications for this system include rate of change, silo level indication, and hopper emptying/filling.

How to Control Weight With Healthy Eating and Regular Exercise

control weight

Controlling weight is a process that involves healthy eating and regular exercise. It also ensures that you are getting enough nutrients.

Maintaining a healthy weight reduces your risk for health problems such as heart disease and high blood pressure. It can also help you find shapely clothing and feel more confident.

Eat Healthy Fats

Fat is an important nutrient that should make up 25 to 35 percent of your daily calories. Good fats help you feel full, aid in digestion and control appetite hormones. Healthy fats are unsaturated fats, such as those found in nuts and fish, rapeseed oil, olive oil and avocados. Avoid unhealthy fats like processed meats and fried foods, fatty cuts of meat, butter, lard, tallow and suet.

Eating healthy fats may help you maintain a healthy weight, reduce your risk of heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers, according to the American Institute for Cancer Research. However, it’s important to remember that all fats contain 9 calories per gram, so watch your portion sizes. Each serving of nuts, for example, contains about 160 calories. You also need to limit saturated and trans fats, such as those found in red meat, whole butter and lard.

Eat Smaller Portion Sizes

The size of your meals and snacks has a big impact on weight gain. Large portions can lead to overeating, which in turn leads to excess calorie intake that is stored as fat. Eating healthy portion sizes means that you can eat your favorite foods in moderation.

Smaller serving sizes are easy to achieve with a few simple changes in your diet. You can start by using smaller plates and bowls to naturally limit your portions. You can also use food labels to help you understand what a recommended serving size looks like for each type of food. Meal prep at home and taking half of a meal to go when eating out can also give you full control over your portion sizes.

A good rule of thumb is that protein portions should be the size of your palm, carbs should be the size of your clenched fist, and fats the size of your thumb. Drinking a glass of water before each meal can help to trigger your stomach to signal fullness.

Allow Yourself to Indulge

Indulging in certain foods from time to time can actually be helpful for a healthy diet. “Depriving yourself of foods you crave can cause you to overindulge later on or eat too much of those treats,” says Cording, adding that the best approach is to be able to indulge regularly, but in moderation. For example, if you’re craving chocolate or an ice cream cone, she suggests eating one small piece and sitting down to savor it so that you don’t just devour it quickly and end up feeling unsatisfied. Of course, this doesn’t apply to bodybuilders or other athletes who must eat very restrictively for performance reasons. This should not be a regular approach for the rest of us.

This article was originally published in “Fitness & Health” magazine.

How Do Scales Work?


Scales of all types, from a skewed spring scale hanging by the produce aisle to massive pit-and-girder monsters that weigh train cars and tractor-trailers, are the backbone of our modern world. No matter what shape or size they are, all scales work through devices called load cells that record the weight being measured.

Weight Measurement

Weight measurements can be made with a wide variety of mechanical and electrical scales. They are commonly referred to as balances and can range from small microbalances to industrial scales with weighing capacities of many tons. Most are calibrated using standard cast iron bar weights and should be tared (reset to read zero) on a regular basis.

The concept of weight measurement is important for children to understand at a young age. Students can learn that an object’s weight depends on gravity and is not affected by the size or shape of the object.

An understanding of weight and mass measurement will help them understand why a lion is heavier than a monkey and why the weight of an apple and the weight of a banana are different. This knowledge will allow them to make sound decisions about the health of themselves and others. It will also help them understand that an estimate of weight requires quality checking similar to other health related variables.

Load Cells

Load cells are the mechanical devices in weighing systems that sense force and transmit it in various forms for readout and recording. They are the cornerstone of most industrial, manufacturing and quality control-based weighing environments.

There are many different load cell types in use today, but they all work on the same basic principle of turning deflection into a change in resistance. Typically, they involve the use of one or multiple strain gauges within a mechanical setup (e.g., a bent helix or bent membrane) to detect the force that is being applied.

Hydraulic and pneumatic load cells have been growing in popularity due to their stability and lack of fluid leakage, but strain gauge technology is still the most commonly used in a wide range of applications, including tank level, truck scales and hoppers. They are also more resistant to overloads and metal fatigue than other load sensor technologies. They also feature a low profile, which makes them suitable for applications with limited space.


The most common scales used in medical, industrial and retail settings use devices called load cells to measure weight. They convert mechanical energy (the bending that occurs when an object is placed on the scale) into an electronic signal. The change in the signal is then converted into a digital weight reading.

Although there are many different types of digital scales, all work in similar ways. Most use a series of transducer beams that are engineered to bend in proportion to the amount of force being exerted on the weighing platform.

The change in the electrical signal caused by the bending of the beams is then converted into a weight reading using a microcontroller and a display. Because of this delicate internal design, it is important to handle your scales gently. Dropping, throwing or banging your scale can damage the sensitive sensors and cause inaccurate measurements. Also, temperature changes can affect the accuracy of a digital scale.


Scales are used to make precise measurements, but over time environmental factors may interfere with scale accuracy. Power fluctuations, aging of load cells, and even temperature changes can lead to inaccurate readings and equipment failure. Regular calibration, inspections, cleaning and lubrication are essential for maximizing the life of a scale.

Performing daily inspections and basic truck scale maintenance on a schedule or using a CMMS is the best way to ensure that minor issues do not turn into major problems. Keeping a truck scale log is also a great tool for recording and scheduling preventative maintenance.

Ensure the scale deck and junction boxes are clear of debris like dirt, rocks, and trash. Check for water pooling underneath pit-mounted scales and remove any trapped moisture. Also look for signs of corrosion on the understructure of the scale platform and the j-box board. Use a hose to wash the understructure of the scale to avoid mechanical binding.