From the slightly skewed spring scale hanging on a grocery store wall to the pit-and-girder monsters that weigh train cars and tractor trailers, scales make modern life possible. Unfortunately, scales can also be difficult to develop.

While scales come in many different forms, the fundamental device doing the weighing is nearly always a load cell. The same holds true for the processes used to create scales.

## Definition

A scale is a series of graduated intervals, especially in a musical composition. It may also be a ratio in which different measurements are proportionally represented. Scale is an important aspect of art and design. It allows artists to create a variety of effects by using different sized elements within one overall composition.

A common example of scale is a diagram on a blueprint that indicates the dimensions of the object based on a specific ratio. The dimensions of the actual object are multiplied by the ratio to calculate and interpret the blueprint dimensions.

Another common example of scale is the hierarchical scale in which higher-status objects are shown larger than lower-status objects. This scale is also often seen in art and is used to convey meaning or emotion. In highly developed cultures, complex systems governing the use of scales exist and are perpetuated through written treatises on music theory and oral communication from generation to generation.

## Classification

A scale is a method of categorizing data and giving it meaning. There are four common scales used: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Each scale has different properties that determine how the data is analysed. For instance, the interval scale has properties of both the ordinal and nominal scales. It also has equal intervals between adjacent data points.

Interval scales are used to measure differences between variables. For example, the difference in temperature between 20 and 30 degrees is measured using an interval scale. The interval scale can also be used to rank data. For example, the order in which athletes finish a race is ranked on an interval scale.

Ratio scales are the most complex and versatile of all the scales. They have properties of the nominal, ordinal and interval scales but include a true zero value. This allows for the calculation of mean, median and mode which are not possible on other scales.

## Purpose

A scale is used to measure or compare things, and also as a means of ranking something. For example, a scale can refer to the size or extent of something: ‘the scale of an earthquake’; ‘the large-scale theft of aid’. It can also mean the range of a measurement: ‘the scale of the metre’.

A scale can also be a ratio, as in ‘the scale of a piano’ or ‘a scale of ten’. A scale is an important tool for mapping, where it allows us to represent the dimensions of an object on a two-dimensional map, with comparatively smaller proportional measurements.

Similarly, musical scales are used to help create music with consistent pitches. However, some musical scales cannot be represented with conventional notation, such as the tumbling strains found in nonliterate or indigenous Australian Aboriginal music. A hybrid scale was developed in 2014 which combines the principles of both a balance and spring scale, using elastic deformation to achieve equilibrium.

## Examples

Scale can be used to describe the size of a figure or object. It can also be used to show the relationship between two numbers, such as in a ratio scale. For example, speed is measured on a ratio scale. When comparing speeds, we know that 50 miles per hour is half the speed of 100 miles per hour.

When conducting research, it is important to understand the different types of measurement scales. This will help researchers decide which data analysis technique to use.

Nominal and ordinal scales are easy to understand, as they depict non-mathematical ideas such as frequency or degree of satisfaction. Interval and ratio scales are more complicated, but still useful. It is important to understand the difference between interval and ratio scales, as they can have a significant impact on data analysis techniques. Using the incorrect type of scale can lead to inaccurate results. Also, it is a good idea to develop a preliminary list of items and response options for any survey.