What Are Measures and Metrics in Business Analytics?

A measure is a custom calculation in Power BI Desktop. Unlike calculated columns, measures are dynamic and adjust on the fly in response to user actions like filtering or data selection in visuals.

In physics, measurement is the process of assigning numbers to physical quantities and phenomena. It is an essential part of all scientific investigations and almost every human activity.


Quantity is a property of an object that can be measured. It is the amount of something, such as the number of eggs or cups of coffee in a box. It is used in many day-to-day situations, such as calculating the amount of ingredients for a recipe or comparing the size of an exhibition to last year’s. It can also be a verb, such as ‘to measure’ or ‘to take the measure of’.

In mathematics, a measure is an object that assigns to each set in a collection of sets a function, called its measure. A measure has the properties of sigma finiteness and countable additivity. It is not the same as a metric, which focuses more on inputs and activities than on outcomes. The General Conference on Weights and Measures oversees the International System of Units, which consists of base measures that scientists agreed upon long ago. These base measurements are universally accepted and can be used to compare the qualities of things that occur in different places.


The quality of measures used is important in assessing healthcare performance. They can help to identify strengths and weaknesses and promote improvement. They also provide a compass and benchmark for decision-making.

The measure development process involves reviewing evidence, analysis of care gaps, feasibility assessment, determination of data sources, and developing detailed specifications. It is conducted by a multidisciplinary team of professionals. The final product is an endorsed quality measure, which can be used in federal programs.

A quality measure is a quantifiable measure of a product or service that describes an objective aspect of its performance. There are several types of quality metrics, including process, structural, and outcome. Process measures evaluate transactions between patients and providers, while structural metrics assess the context of healthcare delivery. Outcome measures are based on patients’ experiences with the delivery of health services. They include safety, timeliness, efficiency, equity, and patient centeredness. Enhanced visibility into performance metrics can motivate employees and encourage an active approach to problem-solving.


Efficiency is the ability to achieve an end goal with minimal waste, effort or resources. This can be applied to business processes, production output, energy consumption, or even personal goals like reducing the number of light bulbs used. The benefits of being efficient can lead to increased profitability, lower costs and happier employees.

Using efficiency metrics can help businesses identify opportunities for improvement and drive sustainable gains in productivity. A key metric is customer satisfaction, which focuses on the overall experience with your company’s products or services. Another metric is sales conversion rates, which focuses on how many people are converted to customers.

Measures update automatically with data changes and can handle complex calculations, including ratios and forecasts. Calculated columns, on the other hand, are static values that don’t change based on filter context and are often more useful for reusability. To increase the performance of your DAX expressions, use calculated columns when possible. This can significantly speed up your data model refresh and reduce database size.


A measure is a figure that represents a quantity. A metric, on the other hand, is a quantifiable indicator of progress towards a specific goal. It is important to understand the difference between these two terms, because they have different meanings in business analytics.

Alliances began by assessing their individual markets and communities to determine a localized approach to public reporting of cost information. They also considered how to provide cost comparisons that are meaningful for a diverse audience. They developed a range of approaches, including presenting quality and cost information together on one page and using real dollar amounts instead of symbols.

Episode-based cost measures limit costs to services related to the specific condition or procedure. This reduces the risk of double-counting when multiple clinicians are attributed to an episode. In addition, limiting episodes to services that are clinically related improves the comparability of results by excluding health care costs unrelated to treatment. Clinical subcommittees were engaged to provide detailed input on measure specifications and clinically relevant considerations.

The Difference Between Mass and Weight

Many people use the terms weight and mass interchangeably, but they are two distinct physical properties. Mass represents the amount of matter an object contains, while weight depends on the force exerted by gravity on that object.

The most common unit used to measure mass is the kilogram, abbreviated as kg. There are other units of measurement for mass, however.

Units of Mass

There are many units of mass used in the Metric System of Measurements (MSM), but the most common is the kilogram, or kg. A kilogram is the equivalent to 1000 g.

The kilogram is one of the seven base units of the SI, or International System of Units. It is defined by the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram, a roughly golfball-sized platinum-iridium cylinder stored in a vault in the International Bureau of Weights and Measures on the outskirts of Paris.

There is an effort underway to redefine the kilogram in terms of a fundamental physical constant, similar to the way the meter was redefined in terms of the speed of light. Two possibilities are currently being investigated: the Planck constant and the Avogadro constant.

Gravitational Mass

It’s obvious from Galileo’s Pisa experiments (Figure 5.3) that the strength of an object’s gravitational force depends only on one property: its mass. But what isn’t so obvious is the fact that the inertial property of an object, its resistance to acceleration, also depends on its mass.

This is what led Einstein to develop his weak equivalence principle — that inertial and gravitational masses are the same for all objects and substances. This is why, for example, a heavy brass cylinder and an aluminum cylinder of the same size are both heavier than air and have the same weight, even when they’re in space far from any significant source of gravity. However, this is not the case when comparing an object’s inertial and gravitational mass at rest, because they follow different trajectories. So, for this comparison, a true balance is used. This is the type of scale that you find in a bathroom or clinic that measures your weight.

Inertial Mass

Mass is a property of an object that determines its resistance to change in motion. It is measured by applying a known force to an object and measuring the acceleration that results. An object with greater inertial mass will accelerate less than an object with lesser inertial mass when acted upon by the same force, because it requires more force to cause a given acceleration.

In contrast, an object’s gravitational mass is determined by the net force and acceleration of that object in a given gravity field. These two measures of mass differ and some physicists make a distinction between them, with some using scales and true balances to measure gravitational mass and others dispenseing with gravity altogether, like astronauts aboard Skylab, by counting falling atoms.

Most digital scales give you a weight number for an object, but they aren’t necessarily measuring either the inertial or gravitational mass of that object. The reason is that the same unit of measurement — kilograms (kg) — is used for both types of mass, because they are proportional.


The terms weight and mass are often used interchangeably, especially outside of physics, but they are actually two different physical measurements. Mass is a measure of matter that an object contains, while weight is the gravitational force that an object feels due to gravity.

An object’s weight is determined by how much force is needed to accelerate it, and the more mass an object has, the more it will resist acceleration. For example, a small kitten has very little mass, so it can be moved with a relatively light force. An elephant, on the other hand, has a lot of mass, so it will take a significant amount of force to move it.

In some occupations, such as chemistry and metallurgy, it is important to know the difference between mass and weight so that specific applications are correctly addressed. In other cases, such as in commerce and common usage, the words can be interchanged. However, it is advisable to phase out the use of weight in favor of mass whenever possible.